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Nivolumab During Active Surveillance After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Esophageal Cancer: SANO-3 Study (SANO-3)

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. Read our disclaimer for details. Identifier: NCT05491616
Recruitment Status : Recruiting
First Posted : August 8, 2022
Last Update Posted : March 12, 2024
Information provided by (Responsible Party):
Dr. B. (Bianca) Mostert, Erasmus Medical Center

Brief Summary:

In an effort to prevent surgery in selected patients with esophageal cancer, the SANO-2 study offers active surveillance to patients with clinically complete response (cCR) after neoadjuvant chemoradiation (nCRT). Some of these patients will never develop locoregional and/or distant recurrence of disease (persistent cCR). However, two-thirds of the patients that undergo active surveillance still get disease recurrence. This can be locoregional regrowth or distant metastases. To increase the efficacy of active surveillance (reduce the proportion of patients that need surgery) and improve survival, effective systemic maintenance therapy is needed. The CheckMate 577 randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial showed that Nivolumab increases disease free survival in patients after nCRT and esophagectomy.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of nivolumab during active surveillance in patients with cCR after neoadjuvant chemoradiation for esophageal cancer

Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
Esophageal Cancer Drug: Nivolumab Phase 2

Detailed Description:
The rationale of maintenance nivolumab in patients with cCR undergoing active surveillance is to decrease the risk for disease recurrence and improve survival as well as to optimize the chance for having an organ sparing treatment. In this non-randomized phase II study we will assess the efficacy of maintenance nivolumab in patients who are undergoing active surveillance after nCRT in the context of the SANO-2 trial: the SANO-3 study. The SANO-3 study aims to identify a new indication for immunotherapy in primary esophageal cancer: patients who have been identified as a clinical complete responders 10-14 weeks after nCRT can be included. This subgroup of patients will not undergo standard surgery but instead continue with active surveillance after nCRT when they opt for participation in the SANO-2 trial.

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Study Type : Interventional  (Clinical Trial)
Estimated Enrollment : 74 participants
Allocation: N/A
Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
Masking: None (Open Label)
Primary Purpose: Treatment
Official Title: Nivolumab During Active Surveillance After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation for Esophageal Cancer: SANO-3 Study
Actual Study Start Date : September 29, 2022
Estimated Primary Completion Date : April 2025
Estimated Study Completion Date : October 2026

Resource links provided by the National Library of Medicine

Drug Information available for: Nivolumab

Arm Intervention/treatment
Experimental: Nivolumab q4w
patients will receive Nivolumab at 480mg Q4W starting 10-14 weeks
Drug: Nivolumab
In this SANO-3 study, patients will receive Nivolumab at 480mg Q4W starting 10-14 weeks after nCRT (i.e., when cCR has been established) until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, for a maximum duration of 1 year.
Other Name: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor

Primary Outcome Measures :
  1. Disease Free survival 18 months [ Time Frame: 18 months ]
    No locoregional or distant recurrence of disease, evaluated by PETCT, EUS (Endoscopic Ultrasound), endoscopy + bite-on-bite biopsy

Secondary Outcome Measures :
  1. the proportion of patients with locoregional and/or distant metastase [ Time Frame: occurence or end of follow-up (2 years after start immunotherapy), which comes first ]
    Locoregional or distant recurrence of disease, evaluated by PETCT, EUS (Endoscopic Ultrasound), endoscopy + bite-on-bite biopsy

  2. the proportion of patients that undergo esophagectomy [ Time Frame: occurence or end of follow-up (2 years after start immunotherapy), which comes first ]
    For locoregional disease recurrence, evaluated at pre-specified time points

  3. health-related quality of life (HRQOL) at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after inclusion [ Time Frame: baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after inclusion ]
    The EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire will be used. Scale scores will be calculated following the scoring guidelines of the EORTC questionnaires. Scores will be summarized by means of the appropriate descriptive statistics (mean + SD or median + IQR) at each measurement point.

  4. overall survival at 2 years [ Time Frame: 2 years ]
    No recurrence of disease at 2 years, evaluated by PETCT, EUS (Endoscopic Ultrasound), endoscopy + bite-on-bite biopsy

Information from the National Library of Medicine

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies.

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Ages Eligible for Study:   18 Years and older   (Adult, Older Adult)
Sexes Eligible for Study:   All
Accepts Healthy Volunteers:   No

Inclusion Criteria:

  1. Age ≥18
  2. Written informed consent and ability to understand the nature of the study and the study-related procedures and to comply with them
  3. Histologically proven, resectable adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus or GEJ (gastroesophageal junction) according to the UICC TNM7 definition. Tumors of the esophagus and tumors of which the epicentre is within 5 cm of the GEJ are eligible for inclusion in the trial (Type 1 and Type 2 according to Siewert classification of esophagogastric adenocarcinoma
  4. Pre-treatment stage cT2-4aN0-2M0 disease. In case of stage cT4a, the possibility for a curative resection has to be explicitly verified by the multidisciplinary tumor board
  5. nCRT (CROSS regimen) completed, i.e. all radiotherapy fractions administered.
  6. Complete clinical response 10-14 weeks after nCRT as determined by endoscopy with biopsies, EUS with FNA and PET/CT scanning
  7. No prior cytotoxic chemotherapy other than as part of the neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CROSS)
  8. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1.
  9. Adequate cardiac function (cardiac function tests such as echocardiography only necessary in symptomatic patients).
  10. Adequate respiratory function (pulmonary function tests only necessary in symptomatic patients).
  11. Adequate bone marrow function (White Blood Cells >2x10^9/l; Haemoglobin >6,2mmol/L; platelets >100x10^9/l). In the event of transfusions, the last red blood cell transfusion should be more than 2 weeks before inclusion.
  12. Adequate renal function (Glomerular Filtration Rate >40 ml/min) or Serum creatinine <=1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
  13. Adequate liver function (AST and ALT < 3.0 x ULN; Total bilirubin < 1.5 x ULN (except participants with Gilbert Syndrome who may have a total bilirubin level of < 3.0 x ULN)
  14. Women of child-bearing potential must have a negative serum pregnancy test during screening period
  15. Patients must be willing to use adequate contraception during the study and for 3 months after the end of the study.

Exclusion Criteria:

  1. Language difficulty, dementia or altered mental status prohibiting the understanding and giving of informed consent and to complete quality of life questionnaires;
  2. Patients who were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy
  3. Patients who were unable to complete all radiotherapy fractions of the nCRT
  4. No cCR at 10-14 weeks
  5. Esophageal cancer evaluated as not curatively-resectable by the multidisciplinary tumour board, for instance because ingrowth in the trachea, aorta or vertebra (cT4b)
  6. Gastric carcinoma
  7. Clinically significant (active) cardiac disease (e.g. symptomatic coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction within last 12 months)
  8. Clinically significant lung disease (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1)
  9. Pregnant and lactating women, or patients of reproductive potential who are not using effective birth control methods. If barrier contraceptives are used, they must be continued by both sexes throughout the study.
  10. Participation, current or during the last 30 days prior to informed consent, in another intervention trial with interference to the chemotherapeutic or chemoradiotherapeutic intervention of this study.
  11. Expected lack of compliance with the protocol
  12. Refusal to undergo further active surveillance (i.e., opting for esophageal resection)
  13. Prior malignancy active within the previous 2 years except for locally curable cancers that have been apparently cured or successfully resected, such as basal or squamous cell skin cancer, superficial bladder cancer, or GC, or carcinoma in situ of the prostate, cervix, or breast
  14. Participants with an active, known or suspected autoimmune disease. Participants with type I diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism only requiring hormone replacement, skin disorders (such as vitiligo, psoriasis, or alopecia) not requiring systemic treatment, or conditions not expected to recur in the absence of an external trigger are permitted to enrol.
  15. Participants with a condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (> 10 mg daily prednisone equivalents for adults, or > 0.25 mg/kg daily prednisone equivalent for adolescent) or other immunosuppressive medications within 14 days of study treatment. Inhaled or topical steroids and adrenal replacement doses > 10 mg daily prednisone equivalents for adults, or > 0.25 mg/kg daily prednisone equivalent for adolescents are permitted, in the absence of active autoimmune disease.
  16. Participants who received prior treatment with an anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, anti-PD-L2, anti-CD137, or anti-CTLA-4 antibody, or any other antibody or drug specifically targeting T-cell co-stimulation or checkpoint pathways
  17. Anti-tumor treatment other than as part of neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CROSS) within 28 days of first administration of study treatment
  18. Known history of positive test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or known acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  19. Any positive test result for hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus indicating presence of virus, e.g, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, Australia antigen) positive, or hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV) positive (except if HCV-RNA negative)
  20. Participants must not have received a live / attenuated vaccine within 30 days of first treatment.
  21. History of severe hypersensitivity reactions to other monoclonal antibodies
  22. History of allergy or hypersensitivity to study drug components

Information from the National Library of Medicine

To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contact information provided by the sponsor.

Please refer to this study by its identifier (NCT number): NCT05491616

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Contact: Jessie Huizer, Drs. 0107034523

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Erasmus MC Recruiting
Rotterdam, Netherlands, 3015GD
Contact: Jessie Huizer, Drs    0107034523   
Sponsors and Collaborators
Erasmus Medical Center
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Principal Investigator: Bianca Mostert, MD Erasmus Medical Center
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Responsible Party: Dr. B. (Bianca) Mostert, Principal Investigator, Erasmus Medical Center Identifier: NCT05491616    
Other Study ID Numbers: CA209-6KC
First Posted: August 8, 2022    Key Record Dates
Last Update Posted: March 12, 2024
Last Verified: March 2024

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Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Drug Product: No
Studies a U.S. FDA-regulated Device Product: No
Keywords provided by Dr. B. (Bianca) Mostert, Erasmus Medical Center:
Additional relevant MeSH terms:
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Esophageal Neoplasms
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms
Digestive System Neoplasms
Neoplasms by Site
Head and Neck Neoplasms
Digestive System Diseases
Esophageal Diseases
Gastrointestinal Diseases
Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological
Antineoplastic Agents
Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action